Wednesday, December 4, 2019

In The Article “Half A defense Of Positive Accounting Research”

Question: Discuss In The Article Half A Defence Of Positive Accounting Research ? Answer: Introduction The main aim of the present assignment is in providing a detailed analysis on the chosen article that is Half a Defence of Positive Accounting Research (Dunmore, 2011). With the help of this assignment, the researcher Paul V Dunmore has given particular emphasis on the process of positive accounting in order to form a casual description of the human behavior in the process of positive accounting. In addition, the current research program is a useful tool to address different kinds of deficiencies in the process of positive accounting (Apostolou et al., 2013). The current research program has been successful to bring the most inherent complexities in the process of positive accounting. In this article, Paul V Dunmore has been highly involved in the process of detecting the positive and negative aspects of the process of positive accounting. Two of the major factors that Paul V Dunmore has emphasized on in the article are epistemology and ontology. The selected article of Paul V Dunmor e has been successful to conduct a critique review on the process of positive accounting and has helped to spot the different kinds of loopholes in positive accounting. All these steps of Paul V Dunmore have been successful to derive an appropriate conclusion of the research program. Apart from all these, the research program has been an importunate tool to identify the required hypothesis for the research. Lastly, the theoretical framework of the research has provided a positive insight on the article (Apostolou et al., 2015). Summary of the Article In the article named Half a Defence of Positive Accounting Research, the main subject of investigation of Paul V Dunmore is the positive approach in the process of accounting with the help of different kinds of research programs. As opined by Jones, (2015), the process of positive accounting has many links with different kinds of wider intellectual projects about scientific researches as the major aim is to analyze the cause and effects of positive accounting. With the selection of the given research article, Paul V Dunmore has taken an attempt to address the deficiencies in the process of positive accounting research. The selected article has a positive relationship with different kinds of auditing literatures. The research shows that despite of the presence of various loopholes in the process of positive accounting, it is still widely used to achieve many scientific goals in the accounting profession (Dyckman Zeff, 2014). As per the description of Kuhn, there is positive relation between normal science and positive accounting as normal science well suits with the process of positive accounting. According to Paul V Dunmore, in order to measure the accuracy of any provided accounting theory, the process of accounting induction is not necessary. In other words, the selected article of the research has been helpful to review the falsification in the process of positive accounting. In this article, Paul V Dunmore has used four classes of description; they are relative theory inefficiency, internal effect, external effect and the measurement of errors. One of the major aims of this article is to discuss the limitation of the testing of research hypothesis along with to provide appropriate logic of the hypothesis. In the process of the research, the author, Paul V Dunmore realizes that there is a strong need for the development of effective procedure for measurement in the process of positive accounting (Mil ler Power, 2013). Research Hypothesis In order to examine the validity of the research process of positive accounting, there has to be the presence of research hypothesis. The research hypothesis for this article is shown below: H0: One can see the existence of an universe beyond the imagination of everyone. H1: There is a particular reason behind the occurrence of every incident and they all are the part of the universe. H2: With the assistance of vigilant observation, an individual can get the necessary information about every global event. H3: The major intention of the intellectual property is to utilize various kinds of observation in order to gain the global understanding. With the help of different instances in the process of positive accounting, one can test the first hypothesis. It is necessary to discuss the scientific epistemology and ontology with relation to the positive accounting in order to test the second hypothesis. For this purpose, it is necessary to advocate different kinds of random events from the outside of the universe. In order to test the third hypothesis, Paul V Dunmore has taken the way to discuss the process of falsification in the process of testing the hypothesis. Apart from all these, for the purpose of the research process, it is needed scrutiny different kinds of fact in order to develop the preliminary ideas. Hence, it is essential for the anticipants to consider all the new and old theories regarding positive accounting. Theoretical Framework For meeting the objectives of this research, Paul V Dunmore has used different kinds of theoretical frameworks. The theoretical frameworks of this article are discussed below: Instances of Positive Research in Accounting According to Paul V Dunmore, the balanced self-interest operations use to take place between the parties based on the outcome of the accounting phenomena; the accounting phenomena is implied with the help of contracting of various types of business organizations. Apart from this, these accounting phenomena use to cover different kinds of accounting choices as these accounting choices help the organizational managers in the preparation of financial report and the in the process of financial decision-making (Edwards, 2014). As per this article, the individual auditors are considered as financial decision-maker based on their examined audit report. In this regard, one of the most important factors is that in order to take the investment decisions, the investors need to select the type of investment information that is going to help them in future. It can be seen that the nature of human behavior in the process of positive accounting is not included in this article (Harris Durden, 2012) . On the other hand, as per the viewpoint of most of the auditors, the process of accounting standard setting can be happened in the absence of the effects of human behavior in the positive accounting. Various instances where one can find that the process of positive accounting research is larger and wider than the theory of positive accounting (Lee, 2013). It is the natural intention of any research to gain appropriate insight on the accounting phenomena of positive accounting research process. It can be done with the help of various kinds of scientific accounting research processes. From the above analysis, it can be said that better and effective accounting tools are needed I order to increase the quality of the process of financial decision-making (Barge-Gil Lpez, 2014). Epistemology and Ontology As per the statement of Paul V Dunmore, epistemology is considered as a major scientific field; in this scientific field, most of the individuals aim to explain various kinds of approaches in order to gain knowledge and ideas about the whole world (Richardson, 2012). On the other hand, ontology is the process to provide explanation of various kinds of activities and to provide answers of different kinds of questions (Hoque, Covaleski N. Gooneratne, 2013). The process of the development of nature of the human agencies is to take different kinds of roles that are closely associated with earth. In this regard, it needs to be noted that an individual cannot observe earth as devoid of different experiences. In the aspect of both epistemology and ontology, complexities can take place as the main objective is to gain proper knowledge about all the information about the accounting phenomena. Various kinds of problems are associated with positive research; the reason is that positive research aims to explore and experience the underlying meanings and reasons. Various research streams can be seen with diverse range of objectives existing in the mentioned period. Other issues are there relating to the agencies. This process has its own reasons. Two of the major reasons are that human beings use to pose their own will and their various kinds of actions are responsible for the causes. The scientific theory does not have any explanation about these agency problems (Bhaskar, 2013). For the purpose of this research process, it is essential to describe trends in the behaviors of the accountants and the auditors as it has been seen that they use to behave in a particular given manner. This aspects results in the generation of various behavior causes; these causes cannot be identified in the objective world. Need for an Effective Positive Research Program As per the above analysis, it can be seen that some major problems are associated with positive accounting research. It can be felt that there is a need for the development of effective research programs to address the earlier discussed research problems (Jacobs, 2012). From the provided article, it can be understood that stringent testing procedures are needed in order to test the vulnerable testing models in positive accounting so that the measurements variables can be taken into consideration. In addition, there is a strong need for effective analytical models that are needed for the purpose of testing and formation of various analytical models. In order to implement analytical models in the process of positive accounting, the field preoccupation is needed to consider necessarily where tractability turns to plausibility. Paul V Dunmore has suggested that there is a strong need for measurement procedures apart from the procedures of testing. At the time of the research, a sense of biasness has been noted in the process of publication and against the accounting dimensions. This particular biasness is one of the reasons that contribute to the shortage of resources in the process of positive accounting (Posavac, 2015). Significance and Limitations of the Article At the time of the evaluation of this article, a broad gap has been found among the latest practices of the process of positive accounting. In addition, the evaluation of the article has been successful to make one feel the need for a relevant and significant contribution in the field of accounting intellectual programs. It can be seen that there is an absence of optimization of system that is important for the rectification of mistakes. Another major aim of this article is to provide deep insight in the process of scientific research. The research has helped to identify the need for better accounting theoretical model. The provided article has several limitations. Among them, one of the major limitations is that this article did not include the awareness of human behavior in the process of positive accounting. The lack of collection of real life data from trusted sources is the reason of this. On the other hand, the article has a lack of data and information from primary as well as secondary sources. For this reason, Paul V Dunmore had to depend on the opinions of the others authors. For this reason, the qualitative aspect of the research is not properly addressed. This is considered as one of the major concepts as it helps to determine the future growth of the organizations. Conclusion From the above analysis, it can be concluded that the main aim of this article is to evaluate the concepts of epistemology and ontology in the aspect of positive accounting. It can be seen that there are certain loopholes in the process of positive accounting. However, with the help of proper strategies, these loopholes can be eradicated. As per the recommendation of the Paul V Dunmore, some of the theoretical models used in the article need formulation and for this purpose, better accounting tool is required. As per the suggestion, various kinds of measurement tools are required to be implemented after proper explanation. It needs to be noted the behavior of human being is one of the major aspects of the process of positive accounting. For this purpose, it is needed to take into consideration the qualitative aspects of positive accounting in order to predict the future growth of the business organizations. Apart from this, a minimum amount of modification is needed in the process of positive accounting. References Apostolou, B., Dorminey, J. W., Hassell, J. M., Rebele, J. E. (2015). Accounting education literature review (20132014).Journal of Accounting Education,33(2), 69-127. Apostolou, B., Dorminey, J. W., Hassell, J. M., Watson, S. F. (2013). Accounting education literature review (20102012).Journal of Accounting Education,31(2), 107-161. Barge-Gil, A., Lpez, A. (2014). RD Determinants: accounting for the differences between research and development.research Policy,43(9), 1634-1648. Bhaskar, R. (2013).A realist theory of science. Routledge. Dyckman, T. R., Zeff, S. A. (2014). Some methodological deficiencies in empirical research articles in accounting.Accounting Horizons,28(3), 695-712. Edwards, J. R. (2014).Twentieth Century Accounting Thinkers (RLE Accounting). Routledge. Half a Defence of Positive Accounting Research. (2017).sydney.edu.au. Retrieved 26 April 2017, from https://sydney.edu.au/business/__data/assets/pdf_file/0012/59988/Paul_Dunmore_MEAFA_2010.pdf Harris, J., Durden, C. (2012). Management accounting research: An analysis of recent themes and directions for the future.Journal of Applied Management Accounting Research,10(2), 21. Hoque, Z., A. Covaleski, M., N. Gooneratne, T. (2013). Theoretical triangulation and pluralism in research methods in organizational and accounting research.Accounting, Auditing Accountability Journal,26(7), 1170-1198. Jacobs, K. (2012). Making sense of social practice: theoretical pluralism in public sector accounting research.Financial Accountability Management,28(1), 1-25. Lee, T. A. (2013). Reflections on the origins of modern accounting.Accounting History,18(2), 141-161. Miller, P., Power, M. (2013). Accounting, organizing, and economizing: Connecting accounting research and organization theory.Academy of Management Annals,7(1), 557-605. Posavac, E. (2015).Program evaluation: Methods and case studies. Routledge. Richardson, A. J. (2012). Paradigms, theory and management accounting practice: A comment on Parker (forthcoming)Qualitative management accounting research: Assessing deliverables and relevance.Critical Perspectives on Accounting,23(1), 83-88.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Ares God Essays - War Gods, God Of War, Ares, Phobos, Zeus, Hera

Ares God My report is on Ares. He is the god of war and violence and in Norse mythology he was the god of war, violence, and justice. He was the son of Zeus and Hera. His weapon of choice was a spear because it was magical. The magical part of it was he could summon it by call it and the other part of it was if it targeted some one it followed it until it killed it. Among the deities associated with Ares were his consort, Aphrodite, goddess of love, and such minor deities as Deimos (Fear) and Phobos (Rout), who accompanied him in battle. The Roman god Mars, with whom Ares was identified, was the father of Romulus and Remus, the mythological founders of Rome. Thus he was more important to the Romans than his Greek counterpart. He was also more dignified. It was said that his throne on mount Olympus was covered in human skin. He was not immortal he could be killed by a human. Most gods, Romans, and Greeks hated him. Though an immortal deity, he was bested by Hercules in battle and was almost ki lled when stuffed into a jar by two giants. When he was fighting on the side of the Trojans Pallas Athene wounded him. She put on the helm of Death and, after bending his spear, hurled a bolder at him, knocking him down senseless, he received scant sympathy from his father Zeus. The worship of Ares, believed to have originated in Thrace, was not extensive in ancient Greece, and where it existed, it lacked social or moral significance. Ares was an ancestral deity of Thebes and had a temple at Athens, at the foot of the Areopagus, or Hill of Ares. Once he was caught cheating with Aphrodite and was hung in a net for all the gods to see and laugh at them. He is like a big bully because Ares often picked on the humans and little guys. To commemorate his victory over the assasins of Julius Caesar in 42BC, Emperor Augustus honored Ares with the cult title Ultor (Avenger) and a new temple. Most hateful to me are you of all gods on Olympus, forever is strife dear to you and wars and fighting .* He often carried a bloodstained spear. He had over 20 different mates and 30 children. It was said that he always used a heavy set of armor, which had a helm, Breastplate, spear, and some times and shield. Zeus admitted he hated Areas for his violence and aggression Athene was the goddess of war and was a half sister to Ares. Athene thought Ares' behavior was just disgraceful. Ares wasn't the most successful warrior. He was also thought of as a coward and sometimes a clumsy fighter. Troy, son of Ares, killed his father, not in a battle, but with his own cleverness. When Ares heard the clashing of arms, he grinned with glee, put on his gleaming helmet, and leapt into his war chariot. Brandishing his sword, he rushed into the thick of battle, not caring that won or lost as long as blood was shed. A vicious crowd followed at his heels, carrying with them Pain, Panic, Famine and Oblivion. Once in a while, Ares was wounded. He was immortal but whenever he would get hurt he would run b ack to his father, Zeus healed. Needless to say, Zeus was very disgusted with his son. Ares was mainly worshipped in Thracia, a region known for its fierce people. In some stories, it was his sister that sparked the Trojan War, for she created the golden apple engraved to the most beautiful goddess and gave it to the unsuspecting Paris. His son killed him by cleverness. He was like Zeus because he had reproduced from women and left her. It is said that when took a bath that he took it in blood. His mom and dad did not like him because he tried to kill them to gain power and they did not like how he killed every one. Some people still believe in him and think the he will grant a wish of revenge that if you want revenge just say

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Adam Paper 4 Advocate

Adam Paper 4 Advocate Adam Paper 4 Advocate Protect Yourself, Protect Your Rights: Keep a Gun Close By Adam Com 101-201 Persuasive Essay 23 September 2014 Should Americans have the right to own a gun? The second amendment says so! One should be able to practice the second amendment, participate in gun recreation and most importantly protect oneself. America should be able to exercise their constitutional right to own a gun. Laws placing restrictions on firearm ownership and use do not necessarily stop the crime or protect individuals. Turn on the news right now. Americans are inundated with examples every day about innocent citizens that fall victim to a gunshot wound because they were unarmed and not able to defend themselves. Additionally, owning a gun gives Americans the choice to engage in recreational activities such as hunting, target shooting, or gun collecting. Is it fair that a father cannot provide a meal for his family or enjoy a hunting trip with his children? Gun ownership also gives Americans the ability to protect themselves and their precious loved ones from falling victims of heinous crimes. One posse sses a gun for the purpose of self-defense. The right to bear arms is a crucial element of belonging to the United States of America. Putting more guns into the hands of law abiding Americans because the government gives citizens that right, prevents citizens from being victims and gives them the freedom to participate in gun recreational sports or activities of their choice. The United States of America’s second amendment guaranteeing citizen’s rights to legally bear arms, must not be infringed. The second amendment is no different than any of the other protections listed in the bill of rights. Citizens should not need a government issued consent form rather, they should be able to carry a gun as a matter of right. As Thomas Jefferson wrote to his nephew Peter Carr in 1785, â€Å"A strong body makes the mind strong. As to the species of exercises, I advise the gun. While this gives a moderate exercise to the body, it gives boldness, enterprise, and independence to the mind†¦.† (Ablow). Establishing freedoms was so important to the forefathers, that they were willing to fight and give their lives while preserving those Kanoski 2 constitutional rights. According to Bruce Parker, â€Å"In an apparent violation of the second amendment a growing number of states are on track to end federal gun control once and for all† (Parker). Parker, a graduate of Louisiana State University, has specialized in business and state laws for fifteen years. The state of Kansas felt maintaining the second amendment right to bear arms was so important, that on April 16, 2013, Kansas Gov. Sam Brownback signed SB102 making Kansas the first state to outlaw federal gun control. The bill, titled â€Å"The Second Amendment Protection Act,† declared federal gun regulations â€Å"void and unenforceable in the state,† and it prohibited state and local officials from enforcing any law, order, or treaty of the United States with regard to guns and ammunition† (Parker). Subsequently, states across the country stood by Kanas by advancing their own versions of the Second Amendment Protection Act. According to StandWithKansas, a grassroots website that tracks the push by states to end federal gun control, approximately 30 states introduced versions of the Second Amendment Protection Act in 2013. The model bill listed on the site - which was formulated by the Tenth Amendment Center, a group of lawyers who advocate for protecting all constitutional rights, and subsequently endorsed by Gun Owners of America - prohibits state officials and agencies from enforcing federal gun control regulations (Parker). The 2014 legislative branches of Ohio, Virginia, and Missouri also filed Second Amendment Protection Acts that would ban state implementation of

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Logic and thought Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Logic and thought - Essay Example Astrologers try to justify their beliefs by claiming that their work is based on science, but science is based on fact while astrology is not. Statistical studies can give support to the claims of astrology, but this is impossible in this case because astrology cannot be measured. 2 line A: Since the middle of the twentieth century, countless scientific studies that have ultimately supported the basic principles of astrology have been conducted. B: Michel Gauquelin, a noted French statistician, spent much of his life using statistical methods to investigate astrology; he established the truth of a number of claims, including the Mars effect, which proved a relationship between the planet Mars and outstanding athletes. †¢ Astrology needs to be taken more seriously as an art and science that can contribute to human well-being. This argument is incorrect because it cannot be proven 100 percent that scientific studies support the views of astrology. The fallacy for this argument is a genetic fallacy. For the French statistician, he cannot prove his theory of the Mars effect because other factors may have influenced the results. Astrology is linked with destiny, personality, human affairs, and natural events.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

1. Explain what the terms correlations AND confounding variables mean Essay

1. Explain what the terms correlations AND confounding variables mean (in your own words, and cite the source) - Essay Example The article on Obesity in Latino Children seeks to identify factors that can be associated with overweight and obesity observed in Latino children (Kornides, Kitsantas, Yang & Villarruel, 2011). The study exhibited both correlations and confounding factors. Correlation in research study implies the characteristic relationship between the variables treated in the study. Specifically, correlation between variables implies that a change in one variable is accompanied by a change in another variable as a result of the first change (Kornides, Kitsantas, Yang & Villarruel, 2011). In other words, with one or more variables whose change induces change in another variable or variables, all the variables involved are said to be correlated. The study presented in the article seeks to identify factors that are primarily associated with obesity and overweight scenarios observed in Latino children. The study takes into account what other literatures have said about the issue and critiques the information contained therein. The study also identifies research loopholes in the literatures considered in line with the current trends in the issue around the time the study was conducted in the year 2011. Challenges that characterized the study are highlighted and future research propositions made on the subject matter of the study. Research studies also employ confounding variables to aid the treatment of objectives and hypothesis being examined. Confounding variables are research aiding tools that are crucial in the examination of the topic of study, but are relatively hard to measure or account for in the research undertaking (Kornides, Kitsantas, Yang & Villarruel, 2011). In other words, they are crucial aiding variables in a study in that they complement the dependent and independent research variables. Although confounding variables are not directly examined in the study, they enhance the inferences made by backing up the primary

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Visual Arts - Charlie Chaplin Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Visual Arts - Charlie Chaplin - Research Paper Example One of such icon was Charlie Chaplin. He was one of icon that revolutionized this industry in the 20th century until his death. This paper seeks to discuss Charlie Chaplin and his life. The original homeland of Charlie Spencer Chaplin was London. He was born on 16 April 1889. His father was a vocalist and an actor. Additionally, his mother was a beautiful actor and singer; she was famous during this period. Initially his father used to support his family but later he started engaging in drinking spree, and this affected the family for a long time. This was further compounded by his mother ailing health. His father died later due to the effects of over drinking. As a result, Charlie Chaplin and his brother took care of each other during their childhood period. Sydney was the one who took care to his little brother in his lifetime. Their family was ravaged by poverty, and this forced them to spend life in workhouses at their tender age. Whatever they got, they used to support their mot her. Sydney was later sent to training ship known as Exmouth and acted as a steward in shipping expeditions (Milton 8-17). On his return home in 1903, he became ill. Later he found his mother in a mental hospital while his brother had been reduced to a destitute. However, they had inherited talents from their parents and this facilitated heir entry into the stage performance. This made them turn to the theater to change their lives. Charlie entry to stage performance was through the young kids group known as â€Å"The Eight Lancashire Lads† (Burt 71). This stage performance made him popular and a famous tap dancer. Chaplin career extended for a long period. At the age of twelve, he got a chance to act in a legitimate stage show. In the show, he took the role of â€Å"Billy† the pageboy. At the end of this show, he took started acting as a comedian. Eventually, he went to United States in 1910 with the assistance of Fred Karno Reportoire Company. â€Å"A Night in an En glish Music Hall† gave him fame in American audiences (Edna Purviance Web). On return of Fred Karno Troupe to America, he was offered a motion picture contract. In 1913, he agreed to appear before camera upon expiry of his Vaudeville commitments. His success attracted attention of other producers. Upon expiry of his contract, he joined Essanay Company in 1915 (Parish 210-215). Finally, he joined Mutual Film Corporation before he became an independent producer. After gaining independence, he got his own studio located at La Brea Avenue in Hollywood. In 1918, he entered into union with First National Exhibitors due to his pictures. This was a cornerstone for his success in the future. Chaplin had several lovers. Chaplin was married at a young age. His first wife was Midred Harris an actor whom he married in 1918 (Parish 215). Their first child only lasted for three days. However, they later divorced in 1920. He married Lita Grey later. She was involved in various films such as, The Kid, The Gold Rush. She later fell in love with Charlie and became pregnant. They had two children, but later separated in a court case. Lita went on with her life coupled with alcoholism abuse. His third marriage was with Paulette Goddard, which lasted for six years. She acted in Modern Times and The Great Dictator. However, they divorced on common terms. The last marriage was with Oona O’Neill in 1943 (Edna Purviance Web). Though she was much younger than Charlie was, their marriage was for

Friday, November 15, 2019

Puumala Virus (PUUV) Genome Analysis

Puumala Virus (PUUV) Genome Analysis HANTAVIRUS PAPER REVIEW Summary A key concern of any viral vaccine research is the tremendous genetic diversity of the virus Hantaviruses are etiological agents generally known to cause two distinct human diseases: kidney affecting disease and heart affecting disease, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) sometimes called Nephropaphia epidemica (NE) in Eurasia and Americas hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) respectively. These viruses are heterologous (heterologous transmission from animals to humans (zoonosis)) which belong to the hantavirus genus, family Bunyavidae normally they make up four genera Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus,   Nairovirus, Phlebovirus and Tospovirus. The genome of hantaviruses consist of three segments which are negative-strand of RNA, small (S) 1821-1830 nucleotides (nt), medium (M) 3682 nt and large (L) 6530-6562 nt encoding for nucleocapsid (N) protein, glycoprotein molecule (GPC) Gn, Gc proteins   and RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase, respectively. This study characterises the full genome of a Russian hantavirus discovered both in infected humans and small animals, Puumala virus (PUUV). PUUV is considered a prime etiological agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome sometimes referred to nephropaphia epidemica in Russia and Eurasia. Mostly, all hantavirus diseases in human have a fatality rate ranging from mild to severe with an intriguingly percentage rate from 0.1% up to 50%,   the symptom outcome of the disease   heavily depend on the geographic location of an infected person. Precisely, in the republic of Tatarstan, Russia the strain of Puumala virus has shown significance increase as human pathogens resulting to the acquiring of the status as emerging virus. PUUV in the republic of Tatarstan, Russia, has become a serious life-threatening hantavirus causing HFRS with high fatality rate of up to 12%, especially in the Volga region. The spectrum of illnesses caused by hantaviruses varies with the particular virus involved(Hantavirus infection: a global zoonotic challenge paper). It is reported that the high peak of Puumala virus comes with the high agricultural activities of this region during of which Bank vole mouse (Clethrionomys glareolus) the etiological agent of HFRS rapidly multiply. Normally, hantavirus, Puumala virus (PUUV) is transmitted to human by coming into contact with contaminated materials like faecal matter, blood dropped by an infected rodent and through aerosolised contaminated air and by bite of a carrier infected rodent. In the case of the strain of Puumala virus in the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, the strain is dropped by notorious reservoir rodent specie found in the surrounding environment either near homes or in the fields, Bank vole mouse (Clethrionomys glareolus). It has to be noted here that most hantaviruses are transmitted to human by small animals themselves with an exceptional of Andes virus which can be transmitted from human to human. In South America the case of Andes virus has been reported to be transmitted from human to human. Intriguingly, other species of hantaviruses, Dobrava-belgrade (DOBV) virus with its sub-species isolated in Europe, and Tula virus (TULV) are seriously detected and isolated in Russian and know to cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and in Europe the syndrome is called Nephropaphia epidemica. Dobrava-belgrade is known to be associated with yellow naked-mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) this specie is the most life-threatening hantavirus. Other dobrava-belgrade species, DOBV-Af, DOBV-Aa and DOBV-Ap are associated with A. flavicollis (Af), A. agrarious (Aa) and A. ponticus (Ap) respectively. All these species cause HFRS from mild to severe mode of disease. PUUV form distinct phylogenetic leanage, in line with the natural host, bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus). The strain of Puumala virus is heavily isolated in Ufa, Samara,..parts of Russia both in human and small animals, in human as they thrive causing the dangerous form of human disease, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) Introduction Hantaviruses If you hear a feminine voice thinks of a beautiful lady, what if this time the feminine voice is of a man [1]. Hantaviruses have been limited to the genus hantavirus under bunyaviridae family which give rise to several number of species viruses Puumala virus (PUUV) [2], Dobrava virus (DOBV), Tula Virus, puumala virus (PUUV) Saaremaa virus (SAAV), and Seoul virus (SEOV) are commonly know hantaviruses to be circulating in Europe and Russia [3-5]. However, the agent rodents Hantaviruses are morphologically classified as follows; order rodential, families crecitidae and muridae. Its now a known fact that rodents are not the only hantavirus reservoirs. Researchers have found hantaviruses insects which belong to the lipotyphra order, soriciodae familys and Talpidae[6]. Further, with the recently isolated Bat-borne Hantavirus in China, laibin virus ( LBV) chyroptera order has given a strong predictive assumption that hanataviruses could be found in other animals like cow, [6]. The black bea rd tomb bat hantaviruses isolated in china gave a discrete relation to the previously known hantaviruses. Heavily depending on the geographical location of an infected person, the outcomes of hantavirus infection are well classified human diseases: haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) sometimes referred to nephropathia epidemical mostly in Eurasia and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) normally called hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Americas [7] (dissertation Nina Luteka 2010). [1] As the onset of the diseases advances the changes in the vascular permeability is highly noticed, defects in platelet function and acute thrombocytopenia intrinsically can also be observed which is associated with high fever and hemorrhage. However, with the global health threat of hantavirus it has triggered serious research mainly focusing on the vulnerability of the endothelial cells when attacked by hantaviruses. Needless to say, less viral cytopathic effect is observed on the endothelial cells after hantavirus infection. (dissertation Nina Luteka 2010). The mechanism underlying these drastically changes in platelet as the pathogen advances drastically pooling down the immune system and how the hantaviruses trigger interference in the immune system greatly remain futile and poorly understood. hantaviruses have been discovered in insects which acts as the host vector (HO2), hantaviruses in the reservoirs cause asymptomatic completely they do not show any symptom in the natural host. We characterized genome of puumala virus discovered both in human and rodents Diseases Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses that infect human through rodents contact; in rodents they dont cause diseases but when human come into contact with infected rodent through smelling the excretes or inhalation of infected hair from the rodents induces human diseases known as; Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome found in Europe, the agent viruses for this disease are: Dobrava virus (DOBV)-Belgrade, Puumala, Saaremaa, Sochi, and Seoul virus which is recently reported [8],these viruses are considered to be old world viruses, Bulgaria is one of the country were Hemorrhagic with renal syndrome is endemic but the virus has never been found in the natural rodent reservoir [8] however, Eastern Russia, Korea and China has the highest cases of HFRS caused by HTNV, SEOV, and ASV. Nephropathia epidemical diseases, a rodent disease found in human who gets infected after coming in contact with infected rodents and this disease has the symptoms of the hemorrhageic fever with renal syndrome which makes it to be referred to as same as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome [2] has continued to be life threatening in the republic of Tatarstan since its first identified in 1997. Epidemiological study on Nephropathia epidemical between 1997 and 2013 in the republic of Tatarstan, Russia gives an account that NE mostly affect male adults due to the agricultural activities during which myodes graleorus (bank vole) the natural reservoir of NE causing agents population increases [9]. It is revealed that the higher epidemic of hantaviruses in the Republic of Tatarstan is due to the supportive mating environment of small animals (bank voles) and increase in agriculture activities. Myodes galeorus shows high population rate during this time of agricultural activities and are a genetic variant prevalence for hantavirus in this region. However, the severity (or the fatality, the outcome) and the kind of disease or the infection involved mainly depends on several factors; The place infection take place The pathogenicity of the agents The genetic makeup (or the genetic predisposition of the host) Diversity of the agents [1] Geographical of the infection acquired Not all known rodent and insect hantaviruses cause disease in human [3] and the treatment for this dangerous hantavirus infection remains futile. The reasons for the variation of severity between virus species/genotypes and in individual patients are not yet known. Diverse determinants concerning virusand patient-specific characteristics may play a role in the pathogenesis. Differences in the use of entry receptors, in the regulation of cytokine response and in viral replication were described to be associated with pathogenicity [8-11]. Studies with genetic reassortants in vitro and in animal models suggest molecular determinants to be responsible for virulence [5, 12]. However, the speciesspecific factors of hantaviruses that are responsible for pathogenicity and clinical picture are not identified so far. Interestingly, the pathogenicity of related viruses of DOBV genotypes differs enormously with case fatality rates (CFRs) between 0.3%-0.9% for DOBV genotype Kurkino and 14.5% for DOBV genotype Sochi [13]. In addition to severe courses that are linked to specific virus species or genotypes, several serious cases were reported for infection with PUUV that usually causes a milder form of hantavirus disease [14, 15]. These infections often involve extrarenal manifestations [16, 17]. From (Clinical characterization of two severe cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by hantaviruses Puumala and Dobrava-Belgrade genotype Sochi paper) Hantaviruses evolution Hantaviruses within the family bunyaviridae are different from other member viruses in the sense that they are roboviruses (ROdent-BOrne viruses) signifying that they are hosted by small animals which act as the host reservoirs (vector). Other bunyaviridae virus members are arborviruses (arthropod viruses) transmitted by arthropod to human [10-12] . the circulation of hantaviruses throughout the continent has been triggerd by a number of activities which account for from human movements to the events of the world. These activities also account for the evolution of hantaviruses. However, it is believed that hantaviruses co-evolved together with their reservoirs animal more than 10 million years ago. The genetic diversity of hantaviruses came about by genetic mutation on the genome of the virus producing quasispecies which happened through deletions or insertion of new nucleotides. It is further, shown that the genetic diversity came about by reasortments of the same two viruses genome within the host and by the homologous recombination of the viruses with each other [12-14]. Evolution of hantavirus in the host (rodents) depends on the number of factors which greatly help them to thrive as they live within the host rodents or insects these factors include: the destict environment which act as a life supporting of rodent, there events that are believed to contribute to the evolvement of different kind of rodents, such as glaciations events.   Deglaciation events triggered the movements of rodents in the northern hemisphere southern hemisphere as the small animals migrated from one place to the other caused mutation to occurred in the host themselves and equally in the strain producing distinct kind of hantaviruses in the end causing permanent genetic variations in the population of the hantaviruses. Needless to say, human do not act as the host range of hantaviruses instead they are dead-end point of hantaviruses. Thereafter, hantaviruses do not evolve after inf ecting human vectors, its either they die together with the an infected body or they are wiped off from the human body.[11] Symptoms PUUV -circulating in Northern and Central Europe, Baltics, the part of Russia Europe and the Alpe- Adrian region; High fever Back pain Renal impairment DOBV- mostly circulating in Balkan countries and Alped-Adrian region has the following symptoms Severe illness Hemorrhage High fever Acute renal failure Dialysis may be required Fatality rate reaches 10% PUUV -circulating in Northern and Central Europe, Baltics, the part of Russia Europe and the Alpe- Adrian region; High fever Back pain Renal impairment Structure (morphology) The new era of elucidating the etiological agent of human disease hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), emerged when the strain of puumala virus was isolated from the Bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) in Europe 199.., and the discovery of the four canners hantavirus in USA 1996. However, thanks to the famous and prolonged scientific work of Lee at el who isolated the first agent of Korean hemorrhagic fever, hantaan virus, from the autopsy lungs of striped field mice (apodemus agrarius) in 1978 after two decades of work [15]. Hantaviruses virion is lipid enveloped, covered and protected by polymorphic protein membrane nucleoprotein. The virion of hantavirus species are spherical shaped 80-110 nm in diameter [16-19]. Tripartite segmented negative-sense single stranded RNA genome comprising small (S), medium (M) and large (L) [20-22]. Small (S)-segment is the smallest segment and encodes for the nucleoprotein of 1821-1830 nucleotides the protein have 433 amino acids (aa) [22-2 4]. Medium (M)-segment encodes for the glycoprotein, large (L)-segment encodes for the RNA dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp), of 3682 nt the glycoprotein precursor which covers the medium segment has 1148 amino acid, RdRp have 2156 aa, respectively [22-24] [6-10]. Furthermore, the small (S) segment however, has further an overlapping open reading frame (ORF) with a putative NSs protein of 90 aa [16, 20, 22, 24, 25] The lipid envelope bounded with viral glycoproteins covers nucleocapsids and RNA dependent RNA-polymerase.   Transmission The transmission of hantaviruses is done horizontally in specific human become affected by inhalation contaminated air, smelling of excreta of infected rodents and by direct contact with infected rodents. This can be realized through different situations: first domestication situation were an infected rodent happen to be in the house and leave some excreta, when in habitant come into contact with these materials they become infected, secondly through camping and agriculture this kind of situation amount to 70% of all kind of situation where people become infected. Natural reservoir Puumala virus is known to be harbored by the wild small animal called bank vole, myodes glareolus, DOBV, yellow field mouse; apodemus flavicollis, HTNV and a SAAV striped field mouse, apodemus agrarius (koreae and agrarius, respectively). SOCHV caused by black sea mouse, Apodemus ponticus; ASV Korean mouse field, apodemus penisulae; SEOV Norway rats, rattus norvegicus [3, 8] Hantavirus history Within a century modern world renascence between 1900 and 2000 the world witnessed the two major outbreak of diseases designated hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, sometimes referred to nephropathia epidenmica and cardiopulmonary syndrome all presumably caused by small animal rodents. The outbreak caused global human health threat before its agents where properly defined. It became an emerging potential human biological weapon disease because of its mass infections and its anthropoid vector which lead to the virus to thrive in its host reservoirs, without showing any sign of infection. The health hazardous outbreak led to the discovery of hantaviruses worldwide later categorized into two old and new world hantaviruses. Needless, to claim that hantaviruses evolutionarised only between this period, the signs and symptoms of these etiological agents disease in human hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome where long ago described noticed and can be seen in Chinese literature of 10th century and the Russian archives show the description of the disease as early as 1913 in Vladivastok. Lee et al, while working on the early reported severe or mild form of hemorrhagic fever, isolated the etiological agent believed to have induced high fever called Korean hemorrhagic fever near Hantaan River, Korea in 1978. The initial isolation of the agent of KHF led to the designating name hantavirus derived from the hantaan river the place where it was discovered. The highly published anticipated discovery of 1978 proved the earlier noticed hemorrhagic fever in 1951-1953 and gave the new era in the understanding of etiological agents human disease, HFRS and HPS in the world of health hazardous biological weapon. Needless, to say more than 3000 UN soldiers were diagnosed with high fever in the course of Korean War which lasted for 3- 4 years from 1951-53. Throughout, decades of research these zoonosis viruses were not well known However, afte r thorough research, until late 1981 the virus was known to have its own clade and belonged to bunyaviridae family, unlike other viruses hantaviruses research revealed that they did not have arthropod vector, hence they formed their own genus of hantavirus in the family bunyavidae and they exclusively maintained their residing reservoir rodents. Hence the new zoonotic Hantavirus emerged and was restricted to the old world viruses. This was proved wrong in 1993, the world experienced the outbreak of hantaviruses related diseases which triggered the malfunction of the respiratory system, high fever and severe heart damage in the unfortunate patients infected with hantaviruses. This lead to the conviction of world researchers that hantaviruses are actively circulating in the region earlier than there isolation in 1993, in the four corners of the Americas. Seoul virus transmitted by rat-borne mouse in Asia was described, an etiological agent specie of hantavirus causing HFRS in 1980 after the description of hantaan virus from striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) which started in 1976. This pioneered discovery came after a carefully long research and isolating the virus from the rat-borne mouse captured in the demilitarized battle field of Korea. The etiological agent of nephropaphia epidemical characterized in Europe was termed puumala virus, isolated from a bank vole striped field mouse initially called clethrionomys glareolus and later renamed myodes glareolus. 25 years later, the etiological agent of human disease hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, Hantaan virus was identified from†¦..after the four corner outbreak in the united state in 1993 and this led to the discovery of another hantavirus specie called no name virus later renamed Sin Nombre virus. It is estimated that there hantavirus cases yearly go beyond 1500000 gl obally, with almost half of these cases occurs in the peoples republic of china. Since the definition of hantaviruses more than 22 species of hantaviruses known to be pathogen in humans have been clearly categorized and accepted by the international Committee of Virus Taxonomy. With the suspicions of been engineered spread the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) warn of hantaviruses to be possible potential biological weapons. The world health organization   in 1983 initiated the use of HFRS to represent all etiological symptomatic diseases believed to cause HFRS restricted in the Eurasia later called old world. Mostly, HFRS displayed symptoms such as chills, headache, high fever, generalized myalgia, back and abdominal pain and hemorrhagic presentation. Because of its epidemiological and worldwide distribution, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome initially had several names before 1983. Most terms used were epidemic hemorrhagic fever, Korean hemorrhagic fever and the alike symptomatic disease was called nephropathia epidemica in china, Korea and (USSR, Scandinavia and Europe) respectively. Hantaviruses clinical presentation Normally incubation of Hantaviruses human infection takes 2 to 3 weeks. The results of infection are the two distinct severe or mild forms of diseases: hemorrhagic renal with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the Eurasian countries and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the American Countries. HFRS and Nephropaphia Epidemical are the severe form of hemorrhagic fever developed when infected with Euraisan kinds of Hantaviruses, patients present kidney failure, high fever, and internal bleeding as the main symptoms which results to the death of the patient[7]. Apart from kidney failure and high fever, affected humans present symptoms which include chills, vomiting, headache, dizziness, nausea, non-productive cough, gastrointestinal symptoms. A half percent of the patients display prolonged diarrhea, malaise and lightheadness, other presentations include back pain, arthralgias, abdominal pain, and shortness of breath, tachiypnea, tachycardia and fever. However, the main cause of death is the develo pment of disseminated intravascular congulation and internal bleeding. Table 1.   Clinical manifestation of Hemorrhagic Fever with renal syndrome [HemorrhagicFeverwithRenalSyndrome:PathogenesisandClinicalPicture Hong Jiang 1, HongDu1, LiM.Wang2, PingZ.Wang1* and XueF.Bai 1*] Incubation period takes 2-3 weeks HFRS Phase 1. Febrile Hemorrhage Flushing Headache Conjuctival injection Backache Albuminuria Azotema Present of antibodies IgM Eye pain Platelet decreased Petechial rash Immune complexes Fever Flushing Chills Conjuctival injection Myalgia Albuminuria Malaise Present of antibodies IgM Phase 2. Hypotension Kinin Complement activation Nausea Disseminated intrascular congulation Vomiting Vascular leakage Bleeding Acute shock Phase 3. Oliquric Disseminated intrasecular congulation (DI) Hypervolemia Kidney failure Pneumonia Phase 4. Diuretic Improved renal function Pulmonary complication Shock Death or improvement Phase 5. Convalescent Recovery period Table 2. Bunyavidae family classifications Common Reservoir Host Genus Common Species Country endemic Animal vertebrate bunyavirus Bunyamwera virus La Crosse virus Tahyna virus Akabane virus Oropouche virus Animal vertebrate Hantavirus Hantaan virus Sin Nombre virus Andes virus Puumala, Dobrava Americas Eurasia Animal vertebrate Nairovirus Dugbe virus Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus Nairobi sheep disease virus Eurasia, Africa Animal vertebrate Phlebovirus Rift Valley fever virus Rift Valley fever virus Sandly fever-Sicilian virus Plants Tospovirus Tomato spotted wilt virus Tomato spotted wilt virus Table 3: Hantaviruses genus classification Virus(serotype) Endemic area and reservoir distribution Disease Rodent vector Mortality (%) Puumala (PUUV) Eurasia (Old World) HFRS/NE Bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) 0.1-1 Dobrava-Belgrade (DOBV) South and East Europe, Balkan countries and the middle East (Old World) HFRS Yellow naked-mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) 9-12 Dobrava (DOBV) Central, East and north of Europe (Old World) HFRS Striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) Low Hantaan (HTN) Central, East and north of Europe, Eastern Russia,Tien Shan Mtns Caucasian,   China, north and south Korea (Old World) HFRS Striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) 10-15 Seoul (SEOV) World Wide (Old World) HFRS Rattus norvegicus and rattus 3-15 Tula (TUL) Europe (Old World) HFRS/? Microtus arvalis Low Amur Eastern Russia, Eastern Asia and Siberia (Old World) HFRS Korean field mouse (Apodemus peninsula) Low Andes (ANDV) South America (Argentina, Uruguay, Chile) (New World) HPS Oligoryzomys longicaudatus 35-56 Sin Nombre (SN) USA, Canada (New World) HPS Peromyscus maniculatus grassland 40-60 Prospect Hill(PH) (New World) USA, Canada HPS/? Mricrotus pennsylvanicus (Meadow vole) New York (NY) (New World) USA, Canada HPS Peromyscus   leucopus low Khabarosk (KHB) Russia , Asia (Old World) HFRS/? Microtus fortis (reed vole) low Thottapalayam (TPM) India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, China, Japan (Old World) HFRS/? Suncus murinus (musk shrew) Monongahela USA, Mexico, Canada (New World) HPS Peromyscus maniculatus (Deer mouse) low Black Creen Canal (BCCV) USA, Venesuala, Peru, (New World) HPS Sigmodon hispidus low Bayou   (BAYV) USA (Louisiana), (New World) HPS Oryzomys palustris Sigmodontinae (Rice rat) low Araraquara (ARAV) South America (Brazil) (New World) HPS Bolomys lasiurus low Muleshoe USA (New World) HPS Sigmodon hispidus Low Lechiguanas South America (Argentina), Brazil