Monday, February 24, 2020

Marketing - crises and problems Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Marketing - crises and problems - Essay Example These factors, which may be supportive or constraining to the future development of the organization, provide the backcloth' against which the future strategies and plans must be formulated (Bennet, 1996). The model analyses the environment into four areas of focus. It should be used flexibly to reflect the nature of the relevant country/market environment. This means that for a large corporate, with a significant spread of operations, it is appropriate to separately map the different environments in which the various parts of the organization operate (Howe, 1986). The facts are normally identified by the senior management of the business from their personal knowledge and experience. Naturally this assumes that they have sufficient background in the environment to generate accurate data. If this experience does not exist external information sources would need to be used to supplement the existing knowledge of the business (Aaltonen and Ikavalko 2002). Even where knowledge is strong' it is prudent to validate key facts/assumptions and to compare alternative views of the future. The analysis should be used to identify: The issues that are dominant and are likely to exert the most pressure or influence on the future direction and prospects of the corporate. This is often achieved by using H/M/L (High/Medium/Low) categorization of each factor. Five Forces Model Industry mapping is a model that enables the competitive environment in which the organization operates to be analyzed. It was developed by Michael Porter and is often referred to as the Porter 5 Forces' model. It helps to identify the strength of the competitive forces that impact on the industry (Kotler and Armstrong 2005). Environmental Mapping' examined more generally the wider commercial context affecting all industries, this approach is focused on the specific industry in which the organization operates. Competition among existing firms - this is the natural competitive rivalry which exists between the various businesses operating within the industry marketplace (Bennet, 1996). Threat of new entrants - this is the potential likelihood of, and ease of, entry for new firms into the market. An example would be the entry of Japanese contractors into the UK construction market. Threat of substitute products or services - this is where a product or service, perhaps produced through a different technology, enters the market. An example would be the entry of compact discs into the audiotape/record market - providing the same product, music', through a different technology. Bargaining power of suppliers - this examines the relationship between businesses in the industry and the suppliers to those businesses. Where suppliers have a unique or restricted availability product they can exert a strong influence over prices and conditions of supply, therefore potentially putting pressures on the businesses purchasing their product/services. Bargaining power of buyers - this examines the relationship between businesses in the industry and the customers of those businesses. The purpose is to identify the relative strength of the business in the customer relationship (Bowman 1998; Porter, 1980, Appendix

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Macroeconomic Environment of Business Case Study - 2

Macroeconomic Environment of Business - Case Study Example It has led to domestic imbalances in the middle-income countries and the open economies ending up into large current account deficits and housing bubbles. Unemployment rates in the OECD countries rose rapidly from 5.7% in 2007 to 8.6% in 2009. This was a rise of 10.1 million individuals without employment in the OECD countries. Unemployment in the US was most massive with similar labour market consequences in Spain, Denmark, Turkey and Slovakia. Some of the worst-hit nations were Estonia, Lithuania, Ireland, and Latvia which witnessed dramatic output and labour market contraction (Verick & Islam, 2010, p.20-24). The most common methods of fiscal policies which could be used responding from the global crisis were a combination of government spending along with tax cuts in order to provide a boost to the slogging economies. According to the Keynesian theory, deficit spending could be used by the governments to replace an extent of the demand which was lost due to the recession and prevent further wastage of economies resources due to lack of demand. Governments could have responded by increasing bailouts and injecting money into the financial system in order to allow credit flowing in the economy; cutting down rates of interests in order to encourage investments and borrowing; and finally to allow excess fiscal sending to increase aggregate demand (Verick & Islam, 2010, p.36). This response could be effective in controlling further impacts of the crisis and further economic deterioration and keep workmen in their jobs and help in the creation of new job opportunities for those unemployed. Alth ough this response was likely to control further downturn the effectiveness could vary across economies (The Economic Times, 2008). One of the limitations in using fiscal measures during the recessions is the fact that ideally government finances must increase during periods of growth and reduce when the economy contracts or slows down.     

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

How Cheerleading Is a Sport Essay Example for Free

How Cheerleading Is a Sport Essay Many consider cheerleading not a sport, but the New York Times states, one of the quickest growing sports for girls in our country today is cheerleading. Additionally, the New York Times doesn’t differentiate between sideline and competition cheerleaders. Sideline cheerleaders are on the sideline cheering on the football team and getting the crowd pumped for the football game. A competition cheerleader competes against other schools or teams in competitions that last two minutes and thirty seconds which consist of stunting, tumbling, dancing and jumps. Cheerleading is a sport because it is made up of teamwork, vigorous practices, it’s very dangerous, and it has rules and guidelines like any other sport in today’s society. Teamwork is the most important aspect in cheerleading. â€Å"Teamwork is not only crucial for executing the pyramid or stunt, but also to prevent injuries. Additionally, judges look at a squads ability to function and perform as a team demonstrated by synchronization and execution of stunts† (Allen). Teamwork is defined as everyone working together to achieve a common goal. The main goal for a cheerleading competition is to get first place, but that doesn’t always happen. To achieve this goal, everyone has to be ready to go and work together, but also communicate as a team. A competitive cheerleaders’ goal is to do all they can to win the competition overall. Cheerleading is a sport that involving people working together as a team, but without cooperation, synchronization, and communication, first place is not attainable. To be a cheerleader, you have to go to practice just like any other athlete. Cheerleaders have vigorous practices just like football. Competitive cheerleading is a sport that includes strength. For a person to be a cheerleader, you must be in shape and flexible because in a cheerleading routine you need to be able to tumble, stunt, jump, and dance without stopping for the entire two minutes and thirty seconds. Cheerleaders must learn to tumble, just like gymnasts. The only way cheerleaders will learn to tumble is if they attend practice and work hard without ever giving up. A cheerleading practice consists of conditioning, going over the routine full out over 50 times, jumping, tumbling, stunting, dancing your heart out, and even more conditioning. Cheerleaders perform stunts that require strength. In a stunt, flyers are tossed in the air, by their two bases and back spots in different stunts that require strength, teamwork, communication, and cooperation. To be able to perform the very challenging stunts, cheerleaders need to condition and workout like any other sport that competes. Cheerleading is considered the number one dangerous sport for girls in todays country. Sports injuries for cheerleading appear in the ER more than five times the number of any other sport. According to LiveScience staff, cheerleading injuries account for more than 67 percent of sports injuries (LiveScience). While watching a routine, you will see that most cheerleaders will have on an ankle brace, a knee brace, or a wrist brace. They wear braces because cheerleaders easily get hurt and they have to wear a brace to be able to cheer and not reinjure themselves. In most cases, the cheerleaders will continue to wear the brace after their injury is healed because they don’t want to hurt their previous injury. The most common injuries are ankle sprains. Cheerleaders may need surgery for some of their injuries because in most cases a cheerleader could of torn their MCL or ACL. That means the cheerleader could be out for months. In worst cases of injuries, their have been cheerleaders that have broken their necks in stunts, like pyramids or basket tosses. There have been cases in which cheerleaders have died because they have fallen out of a stunt and onto their head causing brain damage. Many consider cheerleading not a sport because they don’t use balls, but that’s not true. Cheerleading has rule and guidelines just like any other sport in the world. The rules and regulations in cheerleading are very strict. Some rules in cheerleading are routines must not exceed 2 minutes and 30 seconds. A cheerleading routine must be performed on mats or spring flooring. In addition, each athlete must wear his or her uniform and jewelry is prohibited. If a judge catches jewelry on a cheerleader, they will deduct points for appearance. If a bobby pin or clip hits the floor, the team gets points deducted. Props such as flags, banners and pom pons are allowed. Also judges are the ones who judge the routines. The judges are like the referees in a football or basketball game. The judges will judge a routine on motions, dance, tumbling, jumps, facial expressions, and their overall performance. Many Americans think that cheerleading not a sport, but by the definition of a sport, cheerleading is considered a sport. â€Å"A sport, according to the Association of Cheerleading Coaches and Advisors, is a physical activity or competition that competes against or with an opponent, governed by rules and regulations under which a winner is declared, and primary purpose of the competition is a comparison of the relative skills of the participants† (Renee). Many say that competition cheerleading is a sport, but not sideline. In my opinion, any type of cheerleading is a sport because there is a chance that at games, an injury may occur. Sideline cheerleading is considered a sport, just like competition cheerleading, because most high schools use their sideline team as their competition team. Also at games the sideline/competition team will perform very risky and complicated stunts that people might get seriously injured.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Spain :: essays research papers

Spain The country of Spain lies on the continent of Europe. It is located forty degrees north and four degrees west. The capital of Spain, Madrid, is located in the central region known as the Centro-Meseta. The country of Spain is made up of four regions: El norte, El este, El sur, and Centro-Meseta. Spain's large area of 195,988 square miles covers about five sixths of the Iberian Peninsula. It is one of the largest countries in Western Europe. At its widest point, Spain stretches 635 miles from east to west. It stretches about 550 miles north to south. Spain's longest coastline lies along the Mediterranean Sea and stretches for almost 1700 miles from the eastern end of the Pyrenees mountain chain to the strait of Gibraltar. The Pyrenees, one of Europe's largest mountain chains, is 270 miles long. They are practically impassable to humans because are formed from only steep gorges that lead higher summits. Spain is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean called the Gulf of Cadiz. The Huelva, Rota, and Cadiz ports lie on this coast and further up the Guadalquivir River is the ancient transportation center Seville. Some other major rivers in Spain are the Douro, Tagus, and Ebro rivers. Spain's currency is the peseta and is currently equal to one hundred centimos. The exchange rate has one U. S. Dollar for 134.61 pesetas. More that thirty-nine million people reside in the country of Spain. That is because it is made up of a large ethnic diversity. Its location between Europe and Africa has resulted in a great mixing of races and cultures. The only distinct minority group generally recognized as outside the racial-cultural mainstream of Spanish society is made up of Gypsies, many of whom still follow nomadic life-style along the roads and highways. Fairly large communities of settled Gypsies are found in the cities of Mucia, Granada, Barcelona, and Madrid. Spain is overwhelmingly urban, with seventy-six percent of its people living in towns and cities. This concentration of Spain's people heightens the impression of emptiness that so often is commented on by the travelers, specially those who cross the Meseta. Most of the Spanish portion of the Iberian Peninsula is very thinly populated. In the Centro-Meseta region only the areas around Madrid and Saragossa have dense settlement. There are many different kinds of languages spoken in Spain. Modern Spanish also referred to as Castilian, is spoken throughout Spain and is the official language. Castilian is often a second language, not a mother tongue. In el norte two regional languages are widely spoken. One, the language of Basque people, is Spain :: essays research papers Spain The country of Spain lies on the continent of Europe. It is located forty degrees north and four degrees west. The capital of Spain, Madrid, is located in the central region known as the Centro-Meseta. The country of Spain is made up of four regions: El norte, El este, El sur, and Centro-Meseta. Spain's large area of 195,988 square miles covers about five sixths of the Iberian Peninsula. It is one of the largest countries in Western Europe. At its widest point, Spain stretches 635 miles from east to west. It stretches about 550 miles north to south. Spain's longest coastline lies along the Mediterranean Sea and stretches for almost 1700 miles from the eastern end of the Pyrenees mountain chain to the strait of Gibraltar. The Pyrenees, one of Europe's largest mountain chains, is 270 miles long. They are practically impassable to humans because are formed from only steep gorges that lead higher summits. Spain is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean called the Gulf of Cadiz. The Huelva, Rota, and Cadiz ports lie on this coast and further up the Guadalquivir River is the ancient transportation center Seville. Some other major rivers in Spain are the Douro, Tagus, and Ebro rivers. Spain's currency is the peseta and is currently equal to one hundred centimos. The exchange rate has one U. S. Dollar for 134.61 pesetas. More that thirty-nine million people reside in the country of Spain. That is because it is made up of a large ethnic diversity. Its location between Europe and Africa has resulted in a great mixing of races and cultures. The only distinct minority group generally recognized as outside the racial-cultural mainstream of Spanish society is made up of Gypsies, many of whom still follow nomadic life-style along the roads and highways. Fairly large communities of settled Gypsies are found in the cities of Mucia, Granada, Barcelona, and Madrid. Spain is overwhelmingly urban, with seventy-six percent of its people living in towns and cities. This concentration of Spain's people heightens the impression of emptiness that so often is commented on by the travelers, specially those who cross the Meseta. Most of the Spanish portion of the Iberian Peninsula is very thinly populated. In the Centro-Meseta region only the areas around Madrid and Saragossa have dense settlement. There are many different kinds of languages spoken in Spain. Modern Spanish also referred to as Castilian, is spoken throughout Spain and is the official language. Castilian is often a second language, not a mother tongue. In el norte two regional languages are widely spoken. One, the language of Basque people, is

Monday, January 13, 2020

Goan Literature and Translation! Essay

Goa has been reflected in many ways. It is sometimes reflected through people, through its culture and sometimes through literature. Goan reflection is nothing but the projection of Goa as a land, Goa’s socio-economic life and contemporary Goan expressions. According to Prof. Peter Nazareth â€Å"Goans have written in thirteen languages. Goans meditate between cultures, Goans live between different cultures, Goans are travelers from one part to another†¦. We can understand different cultures and help people from different cultures understand one another. But the disadvantage is that if we don’t work on it, we may end up not knowing who we are. † Today Goa is portrayed as something different than what it is in reality. And not just the media is to be blamed but also the Goans are to be blamed who allowed themselves to be portrayed in a negative manner. Goan literature is one of the important tools which reflect Goa in its true sense. But the problem with Goan literature was that most of the literature was written in local languages like Konkani and Marathi and only a few people could read and understand what Goa actually is and what are the issues related to this land. The solution to tackle this problem is nothing else but translation. 1. 2. Translation: Bridging Gaps The dictionary meaning of the word â€Å"translation† is â€Å"to express in another language or other words†. It’s also the transference and substitution from one to another language. Translation according to Dr. Johnson involves the process of change into another language, retaining the sense which is the basic objective. The main process is to search for the right words. A translation is both imitation as well as a faithful creation as well as free, i.e. why a translated literary work is viewed not as an exact replica of the original but a version of it. Translation is not only a linguistic activity but also a cultural one because it involves a study of culture. The western translators in the past considered translations as subsidiary and derogative and they believed that translation did not have much dignity. But the Indians believed that translation is a valuable activity. And thus high amount of work has been done in India in the field of translation. Many works from Kannada, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Marathi, and Hindi have been translated into English. A few important translations from regional languages to English are Gora By Rabindranath Tagore originally written in Bengali and then translated in English by many translators, â€Å"Samskara† by U. R. Anathamurthy originally written in Kannada and then translated into English by A. K. Ramanujan, â€Å"Tamas† by Bhism Sahani originally written in Hindi but then the author himself translated the work into English. As well as different texts from one language have been translated into other Indian languages. Translation has, in recent years added an immeasurable dimension to our awareness of the layered texture, the resonance and the depth of Indian society. It has enhanced knowledge of our multilingual, multicultural personality. Indeed, only through good translations can there be communication and understanding of continuum of other common heritage. Translation from Konkani does more than that; it creates awareness of the very existence of the language and region. Translation enriches comprehension of a wounded culture, the bond of language that unites a dispersed community, and the values that have sustained it.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Sociology Race And Ethnic Relations Essay - 2005 Words

Midterm 2 Sociology 006: Race and Ethnic Relations Namrata Jaykrishna Part 1 2. Race and Aesthetics. Art and the aesthetic realm are situated within a social context and racial order is integral to the social context. Select one or two pieces of artistic good – painting, literature, cinema, music, fashion – and analyze how the artwork reflects a White, Racist and an Antiracist aesthetic. Aesthetics and race have gone hand in hand for many years in a variety of ways. Artistic goods can often represent racism and attitudes towards race. This can be seen in all forms of art, whether it is painting, literature, cinema, music or fashion. Different pieces of art can represent different aesthetics about race and what it means to the creator and audience of the artistic good in question. Aesthetics and race have been especially interconnected since the past few decades. Even though there have been many visible advances in the reduction of racism in the country, a lot of artistic goods do not seem to represent this. Both implicit and explicit racial biases and attitudes often occur in both the creators and audiences of these artistic goods. These are represented in various ways. I would like to begin by discussing racism in the Hollywood film industry. In any group of people where the sample size is large enough, you can be sure to find some people who are racist. Moreover, Hollywood and the entire filmmaking industry is greatly and often purely motivated by money else, andShow MoreRelatedEssay About Race In America1667 Words   |  7 PagesThe Talk About Race in America Race, or the major factor used to divide and group humans impacts the lives of many worldwide, especially since the connotation of race makes the term extremely controversial. 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Sociology studies the interactions with all of these and shows how mere interactionRead MoreEssay about The Sociology of the Industrialization Process690 Words   |  3 PagesThis chapter analyzes the social policy keeping under consideration the theories of sociology. The Sociological theories helps to understand the structure and dynamics of the industrialization process, and to resolve its concomitant social problems, like high levels of crime. It is concerned largely with urban societies, and seeks to understand how individuals fit into mass society, how inequalities based on race, gende r and class arise and are perpetuated, how bureaucracies work. The process generatedRead More1.Ethnic Niche Are Creations Within Industries Or Occupations1362 Words   |  6 Pages1. Ethnic niche are creations within industries or occupations that affect the desirability and availability of jobs that leads to ethnic division (Race, Ethnicity, and the American Labor Market: What’s at Work?, p. 5). They are basically inclinations for certain types of workers. Ethnic niches can be good environments to have in the workforce if one’s personal ethnic or racial group is included. But, ethnic niches can bar certain groups from getting the jobs and limiting mobility within them. TheRead MoreDifference Between Ethnicity And Class939 Words   |  4 Pages64). According to Collins these contained constructions to difference, ignores the power relations and material disparities that create domination (Collins, 1997: 75). 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In other words, I am interested in who the different religious, tribal and ethnic groups in the country that are creating legitimacy using revenue from oil to establish their own alternative governing body outside of the of the state structure. I argue that these competing groups create popular support, through ideology creation. This allow them to collectRead MoreDiscrimination : Discrimination And Discrimination947 Words   |  4 Pagesis a widely fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person. Prejudice is a preconceived opinion that is not based on a reason or an actual experience. Some groups that are more likely to be discriminated against are; women, ethnic minoritie s, disabled individuals, individuals with mental illnesses and those in low social classes. There are different types of discrimination to include; direct, indirect, individual and societal discrimination. Direct discrimination occurs whenRead MoreThe Human Mind And Behavior As Individuals And Small Groups984 Words   |  4 Pagespsychology which focuses on leaning the human mind and behavior as individuals and small groups, sociology is the course to study human social relations and the society itself. Sociology focuses on explaining societal behavior by studying how gender, race, social classes, religion, socioeconomic status, and sexuality can associate with the overall culture. Example of sociology, social stratification, sociology will lean about how social stratification is formed and how it divides the people, and how people

Saturday, December 28, 2019

The Importance Of The American Dream - 1057 Words

â€Å"A recent poll showed that more than half of all people in this country today don’t believe that the American dream is alive. Fifty-nine percent of those polled in June agreed that â€Å"the American dream has become impossible for most people to achieve. More and more Americans believe there is â€Å"not much opportunity† to get ahead†(Alternet). Many adults of the middle and lower classes American population no longer the American dream is no longer attainable because most if not all of the key elements of the American dream are no longer attainable. With financial inequality being at such a high percentage and steadily rising most do not think they can get ahead. The American dream is only attainable today by the wealthy and is no longer†¦show more content†¦With this information, it proves that the American dream has long since been dead to most American families. Todays average middle-class American can no longer look forward to security in re tirement. â€Å"But Washington is just catching up to what too many Americans have already discovered the hard way: that the American dream of maintaining one’s standard of living in retirement after a lifetime of work — never a reality for millions of workers — is endangered for nearly all but the wealthiest among us†(Altman). The American dream should be able to be attained by all even if you have to work harder than others but it is just no longer possible for most. The truth is for many Americans reaching the retirement age is that if they want to maintain their style of living they will have to keep working. Without the constant income from their normal job or getting a part-time job after retirement they cannot live the way that they are now. â€Å"Almost 19 percent of people 65 or older were working at least part-time in the second quarter of 2017† (Sterman). Almost 20 percent of adults 65 years of age and older cannot enjoy the full benefit s of retirement that are 20 percent of people who are not achieving the American dream. This is, even more, proof that the American dream does not exist. 20 percent of Americans have to work a part-time job just to maintain their way of life therefor the American dream is dead. The American dream is not possible for mostShow MoreRelatedThe Importance Of The American Dream918 Words   |  4 Pagesthere are some individuals who want the American dream, such as non-Americans. Even though immigrants essentially founded the American dream as the thirteen colonies expanded, current bans preventing entry from certain countries and regulations attempting to deport others seem to rip that dream out of their grasp. Contrary to popular beliefs, the American dream is not the white picket fence vision we were taught in high school history. Instead, the American dream is the desire to live comfortably withinRead MoreThe Importance Of The American Dream1547 Words   |  7 PagesThe American Dream, an ideal first defined by James Truslow Adams in the 1931 novel Epic of America. Adams (1931) defined the dream as, The American Dream is that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone... (p. 214). The dream of our ancestors has not chan ged with the passage of time, but achieving the dream has become much more difficult for the average American. Reviewing data compiled the last few decades paints a bleak picture, wage disparities haveRead MoreThe Importance Of The American Dream918 Words   |  4 Pageswork through the American Dream, but for one American, Lilly Ledbetter, success has not always come that easily. While working for GoodYear, Ledbetter learned that she was earning less money than her male counterparts. In addition, she was being sexually harassed by her coworkers and punished with poor reviews when she did not comply with their suggestions. As a result, even though Ledbetter worked just as much, if not more, than her male co workers, she was not rewarded as the Dream promises. ThereRead MoreThe Importance Of The American Dream1321 Words   |  6 PagesFormer First Lady, Michelle Obama, eloquently summarized the American Dream at the Democratic National Convention in 2012. â€Å"Barack knows the American Dream because hes lived it...and he wants everyone in this country to have that same opportunity, no matter who we are, or where were from, or what we look like, or who we love. And he believes that when youve worked hard, and done well, and walked through that doorway of opportunity...you do not slam it shut behind you...you reach back, and youRead MoreThe Importance Of The American Dream916 Words   |  4 Pages During the 21st century, there has been a realignment of both social classes and habits due to the events of the last 20 years that make the American dream of the second half of the 20th century impossible to attain. According to Dictionary.com, the American dream is the ideals of opportunity, freedoms, and equality for all Americans. The Am erican dream can no longer be attained for many reasons, but one big reason would be that people of this generation’s interests are not the same of those ofRead MoreThe Importance Of The American Dream1363 Words   |  6 Pages its possible to achieve the American dream.† -Tommy Hilfiger. What is the American dream? How is it possible to achieve the American dream if there are large corporations ruining it for the companies trying to reach such dream? The American dream consists of the ideal that every US citizen should have an equal opportunity to achieve success and prosperity through hard work, determination, and initiative. What about those who are starting a new business whose dream is to become a large organizationRead MoreThe Importance Of The American Dream1231 Words   |  5 Pageswanted to be successful and powerful. The American Dream or the idea that everyone in the U.S. has an equal opportunity to succeed has been around since 1931. The problem with the American dream today is that in reality people don’t have the same opportunities as they used to. The American Dream may actually just be a dream with no real evidence to prove it’s true. Rana Foroohar, author of â€Å"What Ever Happened to Upward Mobility,† discusses why the American Dream isn’t the same as it used to be and howRead MoreThe Importance Of The American Dream1732 Words   |  7 PagesTo achieve the American Dream, one must work hard and have the dedication to be successful. There are myths relating to this dream leaving lower class members to wonder if the dream exists for them. People in lower class are told if they want to be successful they must put in hard work and true effort. Once they do, they see that they are remaining in the same position they started in. In â€Å"Class of America-2012,† Gregory Mantsios states the ideas of class in the US and explains them. One myth addressedRead MoreThe Importance Of The American Dream77 3 Words   |  4 PagesThe American dream has changed drastically thru our history. Back in the 1950 and 1960 the American dream was to have the house with the white picket fence and the 2  ½ kids. Now the dream for a lot of people is to be able to pay their bills and maybe have enough money to go out for a nice little dinner that you did not have to cook yourself. The American dream is dead, it is because the concept has changed from the idea that everyone can improve their life through hard work to the idea that everyoneRead MoreThe Importance Of The American Dream1628 Words   |  7 PagesThe American Dream, an ideal first defined by James Truslow Adams in the 1931 novel Epic of America. Adams (1931) defined the dream as, The American Dream is that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone... (p. 214). The dream of our ancestors has not changed with the passage of time, but achieving the dream has become much more difficult for the aver age American. Reviewing data compiled the last few decades paints a bleak picture, wage disparities have